This book is based upon work from COST Transdomain Action TD1201,
Colour and Space in Cultural Heritage (www.cosch.info), supported by the
European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST, http://www.cost.eu). COST is a
funding agency for research and innovation networks. COST Actions help connect
research initiatives across Europe and enable scientists to grow their ideas by
sharing them with their peers. This boosts their research, career and innovation.
The publication of this book under the Open Access scheme was made possible
thanks to the COST Final Action Dissemination grant.
The editors wish to thank all contributors to the book and all those who granted
permission to use material under their copyright.
All contributions to this book have been peer reviewed by COSCH and independently.
For the generosity of constructive comments the authors and editors
wish to thank Frank Boochs, Christian Degrigny, Orla Murphy, Sérgio Nascimento,
George Pavlides, Robert Sitnik, Alain Trémeau, and the anonymous reviewer of the
This book would not have been published by Arc Humanities Press without
the vision and dedication of Dymphna Evans, Senior Acquisitions Editor.
Individual Chapter Acknowledgements
The chapter summarizes the outcomes of a number of COSCH Think Tanks for
Early Career Investigators participating in the Colour and Space in Cultural
Heritage network. The authors would like to thank all participants for their contributions to the discussions and in particular Irina Ciortan, Amandine Colson, Julio del Hoyo-Meléndez, Ana Gebejes, Sony George, Mona Hess, Maciej Karaszewski, Aurore Mathys, Christos Stentoumis, and Tatiana Vitorino, who worked on the resulting vocabulary document.
Work on the kantharos vase unearthed at Karabournaki, described in chapter 2,
was funded by the Athena Research Center, Xanthi Division, Greece, for implementation as a case study within the framework of the COST Action TD 1201.
The study was conducted as an activity of COSCH (COST Action TD1201). The
voluntary participation of many individuals in the COSCH Roman coin study is
gratefully acknowledged. The study benefited from the support of participating
institutions, but received no direct funding. Some activities were embedded in routine research and teaching of participating institutions. Research by Aurore Mathys and Vera Moitinho de Almeida was partly conducted in the course of COSCH Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs), and benefited from the support of the European Foundation in Science and Technology, COST. Grateful thanks are extended to: Dr. Anna Bentkowska-Kafel, until 2015 at the Department of Digital Humanities, King’s College London, UK; Eryk Bunsch, Laboratory for 3D Documentation, Museum of King Jan III’s Palace at Wilanów, Warsaw, Poland; Dr. Miroslav Hain, Department of Optoelectronic Measuring Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia; Dr. Mona Hess and Dr. Lindsay MacDonald, both of 3DIMPact research group at Civil, Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Science, University College London, UK; Dr. Julio M. del Hoyo Meléndez, Laboratory of Analysis and Non-Destructive Investigation of Heritage Objects, National Museum in Kraków, Poland; Aurore Mathys of Scientific Heritage, Royal Belgian Museum of Natural Sciences, Brussels, and the Royal Museum of Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium; Dr. Vera Moitinho de Almeida, Postdoctoral Researcher, Quantitative Archaeology Lab, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain, formerly at The Cyprus Institute (until 2015), Cyprus; Dr. Dirk Rieke-Zapp, AICON 3D Systems GmbH, Meersburg, Germany; Professor Robert Sitnik of the Institute of Micromechanics and Photonics, Faculty of Mechatronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland; and Dr. Jaroslav Valach of the Institute of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague. The study was monitored and advised by Dr. Christian Degrigny of the Haute Ecole Arc Conservation-restauration, Neuchâtel, Switzerland, the COSCH Steering Committee, and the wider COSCH community.
The study would not have been possible without the help of museum staff and
academics who offered generous expert advice and/or facilitated research, including: Richard Abdy, Curator of Roman Coins, Coinage of the Roman Empire, Coins and Medals, British Museum, London, UK; Alexandra Baldwin and Pippa Pearce, Conservation and Scientific Research, and Dr Eleanor Ghey, Portable Antiquities and Treasure, also at the British Museum, London; Julian MC Bowsher, Roman coin specialist, Research and Education, Museum of London Archaeology, London, UK; Dr. Matthew Ponting, of Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology, University of Liverpool, UK; Dr. Bogdan Constantinescu, National Institute of Nuclear Physics and Engineering, Bucharest, Romania; Professor Graeme Earl, Archaeology, and Professor Kirk Martinez, Electronics and Computer Science, both at the University of Southampton, UK; Dr. Vasiliki Kassianidou and Dr. Andreas Charalambous, Archaeological Research Unit (ARU), University of Cyprus. The authors are indebted to Richard Abdy, Julian MC Bowsher, and Matthew Ponting for their insightful critical comments on the draft chapter. See also https://coschromancoins.wordpress.com/acknowledgements/.
In addition to the technical, scientific and financial support of the EU COST Action TD1201, this interdisciplinary study also benefited from funding from the Regional Direction of Cultural Affairs DRAC-Burgundy, France, for which the authors wish to thank sincerely. The following experts were actively involved in the study and are thanked for their contribution: a wall painting conservator, Laurence Blondaux, for the discussion around Beck’s monograph (Beck 2002); Livio De Luca of MAP, Marseilles, France, for his essential input concerning the applications of photogrammetry techniques to recording heritage buildings; Julien Guery of Airinov, Paris, France, for carrying out the photogrammetry campaign on the mural decoration in Countess of Nevers’ dressing room; Stephan Ramseyer of IMA, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland, for the thorough examination of the cross-section of a fragment of a thistle using optical microscopy and SEM-EDS; Jana Sanyova of IRPA, Brussels, Belgium, for her interest in the project and the organisation of the final meeting of the COSCH Germolles case study group at IRPA; the leader of the COSCH WG1, Marcello Picollo, of IFAC-CNR, Sesto Fiorentino, Italy, for his interest and support all along the project; and the owner of Château de Germolles, Matthieu Pinette of Sarl Germolles, Mellecey, France, for access to the wall paintings.
The contributions of the Master’s students, Dorian Masson at the University
de Bourgogne, Dijon, France, and Nutsa Papiashvili at the University of Applied
Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland (SUPSI), Trevano, are also gratefully
The project has been implemented as a coproduction of the Sarajevo Graphics
Group from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Sarajevo, the
Association for Digitisation of Cultural Heritage DIGI.BA and Radio Television of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Being a project implemented almost without any funding, we feel obliged to thank the project team, namely: Selma Rizvić and Adnan Muftarević for the concept; the consultant archaeologist, Adnan Muftarević; Fatmir Alispahić (scenario); and the actor, Mirsad Tuka.
At the Faculty of Electrical Engineering—Sarajevo Graphics Group: Aida
Sadžak for 3D modelling and web design; Irfan Prazina for web programming;
Fotis Arnaoutoglou of the Athena Research and Innovation Center, Greece, for
access to archaeological findings and digitization.
At the Association DIGI.BA we worked with the technical secretary, Reuf
Kapidžić and Mirsad Festa (3D reconstruction of archaeological findings).
At the BHRT, the credits included: BH Radio drama programme crew – Miralem
Ovčina, producer; Željko Marković, sound technician; Jesenko Krehić, speaker;
BHT1 crew – Nihad Zečević, editing producer; Zlatomir Ban, producer; Jasmin
Salanović, executive producer; Omer Bukić, driver; Dina Žunić and Bisera Bajić,
wardrobe; Lamija Hadžihasanović–Homarac, make up; Elvedin Hamzić, lighting;
Nedim Muminović, location sound; Adnan Mušanović, music composer and sound
designer; Mirsad Festa, drawings and computer animation; Aida Sadžak, graphic
design and computer animation; Nermin Komarica, editor; Hakija Hadžalic,
director of photography; Vedad Hodžić, director; Selma Rizvić, project coordinator.
With thanks to: Emir Ganić for drone footage, Diwan language services provider
for English translation, and the National Theatre Sarajevo for providing the
The author wishes to thank all the partners and collaborators who have contributed to this case study, in particular: Corina Nicolae, Irina Petroviciu, and Mihai Bozgan of the National Museum of Romanian History in Bucharest, Romania, for facilitating access to the museum objects and the essential input to the study; Sony George and Jon Yngve Hardeberg of the Norwegian Color and Visual Computing Laboratory, for their help with planning, scientific support, and for making the acquisition of multispectral data possible; Bogdan Constantinescu of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Romania, for his expert advice, and the entire COSCH network that has been a source of inspiration, as well as a forum of constructive debates, always pushing for change and improvement.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the European Cooperation
in Science and Technology, the COST Action TD1201, and the German National
Maritime Museum that provided the networking and research opportunities
described in this volume. Thanks are extended to: Anders Ahlgren and Jacob
Jacobson, Engineer and Project Manager respectively, Vasa Museum, Stockholm,
Sweden; Professor Frank Boochs, Director of the Institute for Spatial Information and Surveying Technology (i3mainz), University of Applied Sciences, Mainz, Germany; Carina Justus, Stefan Mehlig, and Stefanie Wefers, all Research
Associates at i3mainz; Massimiliano Ditta, Freelance Researcher and Research
Associate at the University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg; Julien Guery, Sales
Representative and Project Manager at Airinov, France; Zoltan Kato, Professor
at the University of Szeged, Institute of Informatics, Hungary; Christoph Krekel, Professor at the State Art Academy, Department of Conservation-Restoration Science, Stuttgart, Germany; Thomas Luhmann, Professor at the University of Applied Science, Department of Applied Photogrammetry and Geoinformatics, Oldenburg, Germany; Ursula Warnke, Director at the German National Maritime Museum, Bremerhaven, Germany.
The authors wish to thank all the colleagues who contributed to the COSCH WG1
Round Robin Test. Special thanks to Elena Prandi and Marina Ginanni (formerly
of the Restoration Laboratories of the Soprintendenza SPSAE e per il Polo
Museale della città di Firenze, Italy) for the reconstruction of the painted panel; to András Jung (formerly at Leipzig University, Germany) and Markku Hauta-Kasari University of Eastern Finland, Finland, for providing the SphereOptics Zenith Polymer® Wavelength Standard and the X-Rite® ColorChecker Classic, respectively.
A special thanks to Andrea Casini, Lorenzo Stefani, and Costanza Cucci of IFACCNR for their strong support of the RRT.
Research activities by Tatiana Vitorino, E. Keats Webb, and Ruven Pillay
were partly conducted in the course of COSCH Short-Term Scientific Missions
(STSMs), benefiting from the support of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology, the COST Action TD1201. E. Keats Webb is a Ph.D. student in heritage
science through the Science and Engineering in Arts Heritage and Archaeology
(SEAHA) programme at the University of Brighton, UK, in collaboration with
the Smithsonian’s Museum Conservation Institute and Analytik Ltd. The SEAHA
programme is part of an EPSRC-funded Centre for Doctoral Training. Tatiana
Vitorino is a Ph.D. student at the Department of Conservation and Restoration and LAQV-REQUIMTE, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, NOVA University of Lisbon, Portugal, and acknowledges the Portuguese Science Foundation (FCT-MEC) for the Ph.D. grant PD/BD/105902/2014.
Sony George’s work on coordinating this study was partially funded by the
Research Council of Norway, through the HyPerCept project (SHP project 221073).
The development of the COSCH ontology would not have been possible without
Frank Boochs of i3mainz; Guido Heinz and Uwe Herz of the Römisch-Germanische
Zentralmuseum in Mainz; Marcello Picollo and Tatiana Vitorino of IFAC-CNR; Julio
del Hoyo Meléndez of the National Museum in Kraków; and Christian Degrigny of
HE-Arc in Neuchâtel. The authors would like to thank them for their support and
valuable discussion resulting in the development of the classes and rules.